Dry Stone Walls: An Alternative History of the British Isles

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The British countryside has captured the imaginations of walkers and adventurers for centuries.

From the glens of the Scottish Highlands to the quaint villages of the Yorkshire Dales, the British Isle’s rural landscapes harbor a truly timeless beauty. However, criss-crossing this scenery lies the fragments of an untold story, its secret hidden in plain sight. Throughout the nation, from Yorkshire to Orkney, miles of moss-covered dry stone walls snake their way through the open land. You would be forgiven for not looking twice. Typically, a jigsaw of weathered stones and local flints, dry-stone walls are constructed without the use of any ‘wet’ mortar. They hug the contours of the land, quietly extending out as far as the eye can see, standing steady as though rooted to the bedrock below.

In highland landscapes, dry stone walls are as inconspicuous as they are ubiquitous. Seasoned walkers may traverse the nation for decades, acknowledging the simple beauty of these walls without ever pausing to consider them further. Beyond their simple aesthetic beauty, dry stone walls offer an alternative route into the history of humanity in the Britain. Many of these walls were built during the Bronze Age more than 3,500 years ago. They survive as the last evidence of our forefathers’ gradual transition from hunter gatherers to settled farmers. The evolution of stone walls since, most notably around medieval villages in northern England, continues this arc of human development. They document the island’s shift from feudalism to capitalism, and the pains and rewards that followed. That these walls still stand with no mortar, bound only by gravity across steep hills and valleys, is a testament to their remarkable construction.

As much as they reflect Britain’s past, dry stone walls are more than just aged artifacts from a bygone era. They have become a defining feature of local ecosystems across the country, providing a refuge for native wildlife amidst the vast swathes of farmland . Their structure enables the growth of unique micro-nurseries, and provides a home for range of animals. Even a rudimentary understanding of dry stone walls’ history, structure and appearance can transform your experience of walking through Britain. They offer a great way to spot nature, and help animate the surrounding landscapes with the stories of our ancestors.

 

Dry Stone Walls in the Bronze Age

 

Stone walls have been built by farmers for more than three millennia across England Scotland and Wales.

The earliest examples date to around 1600 BC during the Bronze Age, and can be found scattered through the Orkney Isles, Dartmoor, Bodmin Moor and Cornwall. These walls, technically called reaves, are the easiest to overlook during a country stroll, having become so blended into the surrounding landscape that they are often mistaken for natural banks. Such walls were either constructed as a place to dump stones from recently cleared ground, or as an effort to mark territories, as Britain’s first farmers adapted to the challenges of agricultural societies.

 

Bronze age Settlement of Grimspound, Dartmoor
Bronze Age Dry Stone Walls at the settlement of Grimspound, Dartmoor.

 

Unfortunately, Bronze Age dry stone walls are easiest to identify in aerial photos. However, there are a few tricks to help spot and follow these ancient structures on the ground. The first is to consult your local guide book, which will often make note of such interesting features a long any given walk. The second is to always scan the surrounding countryside when you reach a natural vantage point, as a reave’s outline can be traced even from a minor height. Finally, if a wall-like structure is visible beneath a thick covering of peat in northern climes, then there is a chance that you are are looking at a prehistoric wall, given the amount of time such coverage takes to develop.

 

The Transition to Medieval Society

 

By the time Britain had left behind its ancient past and transitioned to a medieval society, agricultural developments had demanded a new kind of crop division .

Primarily orchestrated by the Tudor dynasty, land ownership in rural areas was restructured to improve the farming system. Farmers around villages in England could add 8 acres of moorland to their property each time a son took over his father’s inheritance. This inter generational growth led to a proliferation of agricultural land across Britain, as thousands of individual farmers built their land into the national jigsaw of land ownership. The absence of a centralised farming system ensured that most of these walled plots were irregular in shape, and so medieval dry stone walls can be spotted fairly easily. They tend to curve across the landscape, hemming in a particular section of land.

The rolling hills of the south west of England, with it distinctive limestone houses made from fossil rich Cotswold stone, has several great examples of these features. It is also clear by this point in history that dry stone walls were largely restricted to highland areas, including the green hills of the Lake District. Hedgerows or mortar walls were more popular in the more affluent low-land farming areas, like East Sussex where wealth was plenty, and so the simple dry stone technique was reserved for the more barren uplands. Though still relatively low in height, medieval walls have had a fraction of the exposure of reaves to nature, and so are not covered in peat or moss to the same extent.

 

The Agricultural Revolution

 

A new wave of wall construction outside villages in England followed the Parliamentary Inclosure Acts, passed between 1773 and 1882. These acts allowed the sale of common land, which almost everyone had a traditional right to use, to private owners. Vast swathes of common land and small medieval farms were incorporated – or ‘enclosed’ – within individual estates, all of which required new walls.

 

Enclosure farming system, typical of the 19th century, in Yorkshire.
A typical enclosure farming system across the Yorkshire landscape.

 

This dramatic shift was the motor of the Agricultural Revolution.

The Inclosure Acts encouraged the centralization and systematization of farming practices. Irregular farming practices and the shared prosperity of the land gave way to a more commercial farming structure. This revolution of farming practices in Britain kick-started the march towards it Industrial Revolution, as those farmers who were bought out of their cottages flocked to the cities for work. This revolution made farming far more efficient, supported the growth of urban areas and enabled the birth of the modern world. However, those farmers who had been bought out of their land often struggled in the new cities, suffering in conditions that have been imprinted onto the national psyche through the works of Charles Dickens. The dry stone walls of this period therefore stand as a testament to this human story of pain and prosperity, offering a level of depth to Britain’s bucolic vistas.

These walls are easily identifiable due to the nature of their construction. Rather than being built by the individual farmers who worked the land, as in the ancient and medieval periods, these walls were commissioned by the wealthy landowners of the newly extended estates. They are therefore far more professional in their construction, and follow straight lines due to the new systemisation of land ownership, and have well defined corners.

 

Dry Stone Walls in Nature

 

Dry stone walls are not simply artifacts of the past or structures of farming.

They are an integral part of local ecosystems, as important to local wildlife as hedges or trees. The smallest gaps in a wall’s rocks provides the perfect shelter for an entire food chain of small insects and bugs, from spiders and springtails to millipedes and bees. Larger gaps can accommodate animals from toads and hedgehogs towards the bottom, whilst beautiful robins, redstarts and little owls have a residence at the top.

Just as the walls provide shelter for prey, they similarly provide opportunities for predators. The stoat, a remarkably fierce predator, will hug the wall as it bounds from one hunting ground to another, hiding itself from prey often several times its own size. In areas of flat land, raised sections of walls offer birds of prey a raised platform from which to scour the land, and so a well-chosen spot can become the perfect bird-watching location. Often, one or two holes were deliberately left clear at the base of a wall for sheep or small animals to pass through – depending on the size of the hole –, in effect funnelling the nearby wildlife through a narrow highway. Though these holes were once used for hunting and poaching, they now create a great opportunity for wildlife watching.

 

Local Birds on a Dry Stone Wall, Yorkshire Dales

 

Dry stone walls can be memorable for the botanist as much as the animal lover.

Many early walls were originally filled in with sections of earth, or even thatched, creating the perfect shelter for beautiful nurseries of wild flowers. A fine example is the fairy foxglove, a delicate alpine plant that flowers into a constellation of pink flower heads, which thrives in the shelter of stone walls. The wild Wall pennywort, similarly common in southern stone walls, is another interesting plant. Its’ green, bell shaped flowers are hard to mistake, and is seen by some as a tasty substitute for lettuce. It has a more ancient history as a homeopathic medicine for a whole range of ills, although it is not recommended as a modern medicine! In the south-west, Oxford ragwort, ivy-leaved toad flax and members of the saxifrage family can be found dotted across walls. When walking next to a dry stone wall, one could very easily spend most of the day tour with their eyes firmly on the ground, scanning for such plants in their abundance.

 

Fairy Foxglove (Erinus alpinus) in flower next to a dry stone wall
Fairy Foxglove (Erinus alpinus) in flower

 

A dry stone wall’s appearance is also a reflection of the geology of the local area.

Most walls were driven by necessity and practicality, at as little possible expense, and so only local stones would be used. An area like the Peak District is dominated by limestone, which can be broken down smoothly along the rock’s internal cracks, and so the walls there will be made by tightly packing narrow slabs of rock together. In Orkney the predominant rock type is granite, which is considerably harder to break down, and so their walls look more like a collection of boulders. Similarly, walls in Derbyshire take on warm-brown hue of the surrounding sandstone, whereas walls in Wales have the amazing nickname of “dog’s heads” due to their the use of oval shaped stones. This regional variety is part of the intrigue of dry stone walls, as walls built for exactly the same reason change dramatically from landscape to landscape, offering a point of contrast for seasoned walkers.

 

Dry Stone Walls in the Yorkshire Dales

 

The Yorkshire Dales, a national park in the north of England, has become one of the most popular destinations for village tours of England. The Yorkshire Dales sits on the incline from the flat pastoral land of the Vale of York up to the steep peaks of Pennines mountain range behind it. Within the cottages and hidden villages of the Yorkshire Dales, there resides a deep tradition of farming, which extends over a millennium.

Throughout the natural beauty, running from rolling hills to hidden lakes and cliff-faces, stone walls stand solidly as the largest man made feature in the region. All together stretching over 8000km through the Yorkshire Dales, the walls are both inconspicuous and dominant; simultaneously standing in harmony with the surrounding landscape, whilst hinting to the scarring effects of our effort to reap and prosper from the land.

 

Two sheep as boarder guards to the Yorkshire Dales, seen on the B6270 road between Kirkby Stephen and Gunnerside, North Yorkshire, UK

 

The dry-stone walls are a testament to the proud people of Yorkshire.

Their sturdy lines are landmarks to the endeavor and hard work of local families. For the  several centuries, these people have made the most of this rich and fertile, but often harsh and wintry, climate. In a sense, these walls have been witness to a society that has changed little. The oldest horse race in England is still held ever year in the Yorkshire Dales at Kiplingcotes, which dates back to the early 16th century, around the date of many of the surrounding dry stone walls. The old country pastimes like shooting and hunting continue as if uninterrupted from the 1800s. Walk into a local pub in the evening, and it can feel as though few changes have ever interrupted the homely atmosphere.

However, between these long standing traditions, life in the Yorkshire Dales has been forced to march with the beat of modernity. Mechanization has pushed many farmers out of the region, whilst a shifting economic climate has forced a greater reliance on tourism as opposed to the traditional reliance on agriculture. This has only been to the benefit of outsiders, as an area once closed to all but the most intrepid of walkers has been opened up as a time capsule for all enthusiasts of nature and rural Britain.

 

Manorial Castle in Wensleydale
The front tower of a castle in Wensleydale, Yorkshire.

 

Several walls were built in the medieval period, such as the great limestone blocks surrounding the castles in Wensleydale. Here, the walls delineate the estates of the old nobility, who ran feudal Britain from their parapets. Elsewhere, the majority of walls are built from smaller stones.  These walls taper from a wide base to a narrow top and extend to the horizon in lines as straight as arrows. Such architecture dates to the agricultural revolution, and the inclosure acts. They form part of a systematic wall-building effort throughout the Dales in the 18th and 19th centuries. Nearly all such walls stand at around 1.5m tall, although a few examples, like at Woodhall Warren, are a must see. Here, the dry stone walls tower a few feet above the height of an average person.

 

A Trip to the Cotswolds?

 

Village tours of England should always make the time to visit the Cotswold region. A standard Cotswolds tour offers a diverse and busy itinerary of thatched medieval cottages, rolling hills, heritage sites and hidden villages. There is nothing more quintessentially English than catching sight of a bell-jingling, handkerchief waving, toe-stepping Morris dancer. Even away from the more iconic landmarks, a casual wander or stroll on a summers night through any of the Cotswold villages is a memorable experience in itself.

 

Stanton, Cotswolds village
 Thatched Roof Village in Cotswold, Stanton

 

However, next time you are in the Cotswold, it is worth making the effort to look beyond the main attractions. The region’s twisting dry stone walls are iconic and extensive, but equally forgotten. They have been compared with the familiar lines that trace across a much-loved face, and are just as charming in reality. Constructed from the local Cotswold stone, a pleasant yellow limestone, they seamlessly connect the surrounding quaint villages to the rolling green hills. Extending for more than 6,000 km, the walls are hard to miss, and really are worth your time.

 

How to Find Out More

 

Group of people walking along a stone path in the hills. A pet dog is walking behind them.

 

Dry stone walls are the hidden gems, the unassuming monument, of the British countryside. Though their presence is unassuming, dry stone walls stand at the intersect of the major themes of life in rural Britain. They represent the traditions that tie hidden villages to their more hidden pasts. The boundaries they mark reflect the great economic shifts that have come and gone, each shaping the landscape more than the last. Within their structures they protect fragile ecosystems and sustain wildlife in increasingly adverse conditions.

If nothing else, dry stone walls demonstrate the value that can be gained by taking the time to stop, pause, and appreciate the finer details set within Britain’s great rural vistas. From village tours of England to historical tours, the walls offer an alternative route into the rich heritage of this country. Even over the course of an afternoon, the imagination is set free to explore the hidden stories of our ancestors, who similarly found a sense of home in this little corner of the world.

FAQs

Westmorland Dales, Lake District

Our number one pick is the dry stone walls in the Lake District. Nestled in the bucolic scenery of the Lake District, a patchwork of dry stone fences cut through the local land. Many of the cottages and villages trace their history to medieval Britain, and so most of the old medieval farms have been mapped out. This enables a unique comparison between the pre and post-enclosure farming practices, both of which fundamentally shaped the nature of the society around it. 

Odyssey Traveller offers two tours that provide the perfect opportunity to see more of the British countryside:

Odyssey’s Walking Trip of Rural Britain

The tour spends three days in Dartmoor, which boasts a beautiful collection of dry stone walls from the Bronze Age, Medieval and Early Modern periods. Bronze Age reaves can be found in Islington, Devon and Mountsland Common, where they align with hut circles. Medieval walls in Dartmoor were built more for clearance, although they are complimented by an extensive collection of later walls, designed more for as property boundaries. This is the perfect area for small group tours or guided touring parties, given the ease of access and variety of the Stone Walls on offer.

Odyssey’s Village Tours of England

This tour for mature aged and senior travellers includes days spent a number of quintessentially English prettiest and oldest places to live. This collection of English villages visited reflects a range of economic activities, architectural styles and historic influences. From chocolate box thatched cottages, the local parish church, the inn, to the country house built of Cotswold stone, or fishing boats tied up in what are today popular tourist towns in England.

Further Reading and Local Knowledge

The Cotswolds

Where to find dry stone walls in the Cotswolds, from the official website.

https://www.cotswoldsaonb.org.uk/our-landscape/dry-stone-walls/

Deserted villages in the Cotswolds, from a local blog.

https://www.cotswolds.info/blogs/deserted-villages.shtml

The Lake District

All about dry stone walls and where to find them, from the region’s website.

https://www.friendsofthelakedistrict.org.uk/25-dry-stone-walls